If your sugar level is dropping or if you’re feeling low energy levels, then you are probably eating less quantity of food or your medication dosage is more. You have to discuss with your physician and then either increase your quantity of food or reduce the dose of medicine accordingly.
Here is some important information, which will enhance your knowledge about blood sugar fluctuation.
Being a diabetic, you should be aware of Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia and you should educate your relatives, friends and colleagues about the signs and symptoms. If you encounter any emergency, they will know how to help you.
Hypoglycemia is nothing but low blood sugar level.
It is caused due to increased dosage of insulin injection or diabetic medications or may be due to skipping meals after medication or accidental administration of second dose of medicines, excessive physical exercise without proper diet or food portions don’t match the medicine administered.
The symptoms of hypoglycemia are:
- Unconsciousness or irreversible brain damage.
- Increased sweating, cold extremities.
- Nausea, vomiting or abdominal discomfort.
- May be finally death.
Management of hypoglycemia:
- If you are driving, slow down immediately and park the vehicle in a safe place.
- If you are walking, sit immediately to prevent injuries due to fall.
- Eat 4 teaspoons of sugar or drink a cup of milk or chew 3-4 candies.
- Always keep some candies handy in your pocket or handbag.
Consult a doctor as early as possible.
Hyperglycemia is nothing but increase in blood sugar level.
- Symptoms of hyperglycemia are:
- Increased hunger and thirst.
- Dry and itchy skin.
- Fatigue, stupor.
Management of hyperglycemia:
- Intake of proper timely diet.
- Never miss the medicine dose.
- Regular exercise.
Keeping your blood sugar levels within the range recommended by your doctor can be challenging. That's because many things make your blood sugar levels change, sometimes unexpectedly. Following are some factors that can affect your blood sugar levels.
If you have diabetes, you need to know how foods affect your blood sugar levels. It's not only the type of food you eat but also how much you eat and the combinations of food types you eat.
A key to many diabetes management plans is learning how to count carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are the foods that often have the biggest impact on your blood sugar levels. And for people taking mealtime insulin, it's crucial to know the amount of carbohydrates in your food, so you get the proper insulin dose.
Learn what portion size is appropriate for each type of food. Simplify your meal planning by writing down portions for the foods you eat often. Use measuring cups or a scale to ensure proper portion size and an accurate carbohydrate count like 1 cup of rice, 1 glass of buttermilk, coffee or tea, etc.
Make every meal well-balanced with carbohydrate, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fibers and fat. As much as possible, plan for every meal to have a good mix of carbohydrates (rice, chapati, idly, dosa), Minerals, fibers (fruits and vegetables), proteins (cereals and pulses) and fats (oil, ghee, milk and milk products). It's especially important to pay attention to the types of carbohydrates you choose. Some carbohydrates, such as fruits, vegetables, brown rice and whole grains, are better for you than maida products or white rice, as these foods are low in carbohydrates and contain fiber that helps keep your blood sugar levels more stable.
Coordinate your meals and medications. Too little food in proportion to your diabetes medications, especially insulin, may result in dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Too much food may cause your blood sugar level to climb too high (hyperglycemia).
Avoid sugar-sweetened beverages. Sugar-sweetened beverages tend to be high in calories. And because they cause blood sugar to rise quickly, it's best to avoid these types of drinks if you have diabetes.
The exception is if you are experiencing a low blood sugar level. Sugar-sweetened beverages, such as soda, juice and sports drinks, can be used as an effective treatment for quickly raising blood sugar that is too low.
Physical activity is another important part of your diabetes management plan. When you exercise, your muscles use sugar (glucose) for energy. Regular physical activity also helps your body use insulin more efficiently.
These factors work together to lower your blood sugar level. The more strenuous your workout, the longer the effect lasts. But even light activities such as housework, gardening or taking steps instead of elevators can improve your blood sugar level.
Talk to your doctor about an exercise plan. Ask your doctor about what type of exercise is appropriate for you. In general, most adults should exercise at least 30-45 minutes a day at least 5 days a week. Appropriate aerobic and muscle-strengthening exercise also recommended.
Keep an exercise schedule. Talk to your doctor about the best time of day for you to exercise so that your workout routine is coordinated with your meal and medication schedules.
Check your blood sugar level. Check your blood sugar level before, during and after exercise, especially if you take insulin or medications that lower blood sugar. Exercise can lower your blood sugar levels even a day later, especially if the activity is new to you, or if you're exercising at a more intensive level.
If you use insulin and your blood sugar level is below 100 milligrams per deciliter, have a small snack before you start exercising to prevent a low blood sugar level.
Stay hydrated. Drink enough water, milk, juice or other fluids appropriately while exercising because dehydration can affect blood sugar levels.
Always have a small snack or glucose tablet with you during exercise in case your blood sugar drops too low.
If you take insulin, you may need to reduce your insulin dose before exercising or wait awhile after exercise to inject insulin. Your doctor can advise you on appropriate changes in your medication. You may also need to adjust treatment if you've increased your exercise routine.
Insulin and other diabetes medications are designed to lower your blood sugar levels when diet and exercise alone aren't sufficient for managing diabetes. But the effectiveness of these medications depends on the timing and size of the dose. Medications you take for conditions other than diabetes also can affect your blood sugar levels.
Store insulin properly. Insulin that's improperly stored or past its expiration date may not be effective. Insulin is especially sensitive to extremes in temperature.
Report problems to your doctor. If your diabetes medications cause your blood sugar level to drop too low or if it's consistently too high, the dosage or timing may need to be adjusted.
Be cautious with new medications. If you're taking medication or your doctor prescribes a new drug to treat another condition such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol, inform or remind your doctor that you are diabetic. Liquid medications that are sweetened with sugar to cover their taste may affect your sugar levels.
So, remember to have balanced and timely meals that are proportionate to your medication and include some form of physical activity in your daily routine to avoid sudden spikes and drops in your blood sugar levels.